The digital levelling instrument is equipped with the levelling staff and bubble. It usually uses to find the elevation/height of a given point with respect to the given datum (i.e., Benchmarks or Temporary benchmark).
The total station is a combination of electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) and electronic theodolite. The instrument is used to measure horizontal and vertical angles as well as sloping distance of object to the instrument.
The dual frequency GNSS receiver is equipped with RTK antenna, controller and internal radio configuration. The GNSS receiver is used to locate four or more of GNSS satellites simultaneously in order to determine the 3D coordinates (latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal height) of receiver's location.
The accelerometer is utilized to measure the accelerations of dynamic forces caused by moving or vibrating of the civil engineering structures. The acceleration data/signal is (in g) which needs to be converted into displacement (in mm) for structure monitoring applications.
The shaking table is used to simulate the motions of civil engineering structures in term of 3D movements (in x, y and z axis) as well as vibrations. The GNSS receiver and accelerometer are combined and utilized to measure the displacement of the simulated motions. The GNSS and accelerometer results are compared to the actual motions generated by the shaking table to test the performance of both techniques.
The UTPP CORS is established by GAMR research group in collaboration with G&G UTM research group to support research on network-based real-time kinematic (NRTK) and also for academic activities. The UTPP CORS can also output the high precision GNSS data in real time for single-base real-time kinematic (RTK) application.